Senin, 13 Juni 2011

EXTRACT RADIX WITHANIA SOMNIFERA

AYUVITA (forte) MENGANDUNG EXTRACT RADIX WITHANIA SOMNIFERA / GINSENG INDIA merupakan kombinasi herbal yang aman, lembut, tidak mengadung bahan kimia berbahaya, yang khusus diformulasikan untuk wanita. Memiliki kombinasi herbal yang seimbang yang berfungsi sebagai tonik, aphrodisiac, diuretik, astrigent, dsb. Memulihkan tenaga dan stamina, meringankan masalah saluran kemih, meningkatkan metabolisme, membantu melelapkan tidur, serta meningkatkan daya tahan tubuhUNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup.comHP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id
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Ayurveda

Dalam Ayurveda , akar somnifera W. digunakan untuk mempersiapkan Ashwagandha obat. Hal ini diklaim memiliki obat penenang, rejuvenative dan kehidupan memperpanjang properti, afrodisiak [ rujukan? ]. Secara tradisional digunakan untuk mengobati gejala berikut dan kondisi, meskipun ada beberapa penelitian ilmiah manfaat kesehatan Ashwagandha: [2] [3]

Berry dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti rennet , untuk mengentalkan susu dalam keju keputusan. [2] The berry dan daun secara tradisional digunakan pengobatan topikal untuk tumor dan kelenjar TBC, carbuncles dan bisul. [2] [6] [7]

Sementara Ashwagandha ini diklaim memiliki berbagai manfaat kesehatan, ada beberapa uji klinis untuk menguji klaim ini. Studi selesai sejauh ini dukungan yang somnifera W. mungkin dapat bermanfaat bagi:

  • mengurangi gejala penarikan obat [8]
  • mengurangi kecemasan [9]
  • arthritis mengurangi nyeri di lutut [10] [11]

Selain itu, ada terdaftar uji klinis dalam proses untuk menentukan apakah sominifera W. berguna untuk mengobati:

  • Tuberkulosis [12]
  • Penyakit Parkinson [13]
  • Kanker Tulang [14]
  • Gangguan bipolar [15]
  • Diabetes [16] [17]
  • meningkatkan kesejahteraan pasien kanker payudara dan menjalani kemoterapi tua [18]

It grows as a short shrub (35–75 cm) with a central stem from which branch extend radially in a star pattern (stellate) and covered with a dense matte of wooly hairs (tomentose).[2] The flowers are small and green, while the ripe fruit is orange-red and has milk-coagulating properties.[2] The plant also has long brown tuberous roots that are used for medicinal purposes. It is cultivated in many of the drier regions of India such as Manasa, Neemuch, and Jawad tehsils of the Mandsaur District of Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Sind. and Rajasthan.[2]

[edit]Claimed medicinal uses

[edit]Ayurveda

In Ayurveda, the roots of W. somnifera are used to prepare medicinal Ashwagandha. It is claimed to possess aphrodisiac, sedative, rejuvenative and life prolonging properties[citation needed]. It is traditionally used to treat the following symptoms and conditions, although there are few scientific studies of the health benefits of Ashwagandha:[2][3]

The berries can be used as a substitute for rennet, to coagulate milk in cheese making.[2] The berries and leaves are traditionally used a topical treatment for tumors and tubercular glands, carbuncles and ulcers.[2][6][7]

While Ashwagandha is claimed to have a wide variety of health benefits, there have been few clinical trials to test these claims. Studies completed so far support that W. somnifera may possibly be beneficial for:

  • easing drug withdrawal symptoms[8]
  • reducing anxiety [9]
  • reducing arthritis pain in the knee [10][11]

In addition, there are registered clinical trials in progress to determine if W. sominifera is useful for treating:

  • Tuberculosis[12]
  • Parkinsons Disease[13]
  • Bone Cancer[14]
  • Bipolar disorder[15]
  • Diabetes[16][17]
  • improve the well-being of the elderly and breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy[18][19]

[edit]Naturopathy

In a randomized control trial examining the use of naturopathic care for anxiety,[20] a "naturopathic care" group who received W. somnifera (along with "dietary counseling, deep breathing relaxation techniques, a standard multi-vitamin") showed significant improvements in anxiety (as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory) compared to a psychotherapy group (who received "psychotherapy, and matched deep breathing relaxation techniques, and placebo") after 8 weeks. No attempt was made to examine the differing contributions of W. somnifera, dietary counselling and a "standard multi-vitamin" in the first group, or psychotherapy in the second group, toward the outcomes for each group.

[edit]Side effects

In at least two published clinical trials of Withania somnifera, the side effects experienced by W. somnifera treated individuals were not significantly different than the side effects experienced by placebo treated individuals.[9][10] However, there has been one report that Withania somnifera can stimulate the thyroid and lead to thyrotoxicosis in some people.[21]

[edit]Recent Research

Shown to increase semen quality and reduce oxidative stress.[22]

Potential preventive or therapeutic drug for stress induced neurological disorders[23]

Withania somnifera extract protects from the structural changes induced by morphine withdrawal[24]

[edit]Other

Ashwagandha in Sanskrit means "horse's smell," probably originating from the odor of its root which resembles that of a sweaty horse. In Tamil, it is called Amukkrang Kilangu (அமுக்கராங்கிழங்கு) and is used in several medicines. The species name somnifera means "sleep-inducing" in Latin, indicating that to it are attributed sedating properties.Some herbalists refer to ashwagandha as Indian ginseng, since it is used in ayurvedic medicine in a way similar to that ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Seven American and four Japanese firms have filed for grant of patents on formulations containing extracts of the herb Ashwagandha. It is also found in Nepal

Phytochemical investigations of multiple shoot cultures of selected accessions AGB002 and AGB025 of Withania somnifera. established in vitro utilizing shoot tip apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP (1 mg/L) have been carried out. This has led to isolation of four glycowithanolides viz. Withanoside IV (WSG-3), Withanoside VI (WSG-3A), Physagulin D (WSG-P) and Withastraronolide (WSC-O).The structures of these have been confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic data. Multiple shoot cultures could be an alternative renewable resource for production of these biologically active molecules[25]

[edit]Active constituents

Withaferin A

The main constituents of ashwagandha are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. Among the various alkaloids, withanine is the main constituent. The other alkaloids are somniferine, somnine, somniferinine, withananine, pseudo-withanine, tropine, pseudo-tropine, cuscohygrine, anferine and anhydrine. Two acyl steryl glucosides, sitoindoside VII and sitoindoside VIII, have been isolated from root. The leaves contain steroidal lactones, which are commonly calledwithanolides. The withanolides have C28 steroidal nucleus with C9 side chain and a six-membered lactone ring.

[edit]Withaferin-A

Withaferin-A (WA) is a bioactive compound derived from Withania somnifera, which inhibits Notch-1 signaling and downregulates prosurvival pathways, such as Akt/NF-κB/Bcl-2, in three colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116, SW-480, and SW-620)[26] Recent research in mice suggests that Withaferin-A may have anti-metastatic activity.[27]

[edit]Pharmacological effects in vitro

Ashwagandha is reported to have anti-carcinogenic effects in animal and cell cultures by decreasing the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB, suppressing intercellular tumor necrosis factor, and potentiating apoptotic signalling in cancerous cell lines.[28]

[edit]Pathology

Withania somnifera is prone to several pests and diseases. Leaf spot disease of Withania somnifera caused by Alternaria alternata is the most prevalent disease. It is most severe in Indian plains of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. Dr. Pratap Kumar Pati research group from Guru Nanak Dev University Punjab, India, recently reported in an article of Indian journal of microbiology, on the biodeterioration of its pharmacutically active components during leaf spot disease. [29] They have studied the post infectional biochemical changes and the activities of various enzymes, with the disease progression. Further, they have successfully developed a molecular detection system for the pathogen.

[edit]Climatic conditions for growth

Grown as late rainy season (kharif) crop. The semi-tropical areas receiving 500 to 750 mm rainfall are suitable for its cultivation as rainfed crop. If one or two winter rains are received, the root development improves.

The crop requires relatively dry season during its growing period. It can tolerate a temperature range of 20 to 38 °C and even low temperature as low as 10 °C. The plant grows from sea level to an altitude of 1500 meters above sea level.

[edit]Sub-species and related species

There are two sub-species of Withania somnifera - W. somnifera (ashwagandha) Kaul and W. somnifera Dunal. The sub-species Withania ashwagandha Kaul has been named after Indian botanistKailas Nath Kaul, who was the pioneer of modern scientific research on the plant. [30] There are 23 species of the Withania genus that occur in the dry parts of India, North Africa, Middle East, and theMediterranean.[2]

[edit]References

  1. ^ "Ashwagandha(Withania Somnifera) information from NPGS/GRIN". Retrieved 2008-02-16.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Mirjalili MH, Moyano E, Bonfill M, Cusido RM, Palazón J (2009). "Steroidal lactones from Withania somnifera, an ancient plant for novel medicine".Molecules 14 (7): 2373–93. doi:10.3390/molecules14072373. PMID 19633611.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Scartezzini P, Speroni E (July 2000). "Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity". J Ethnopharmacol 71 (1-2): 23–43.doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00213-0. PMID 10904144.
  4. ^ Scientific basis for the use of Indian ayurvedic medicinal plants in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders: 1. Ashwagandha Murthy M.R.V., Ranjekar P.K., Ramassamy C., Deshpande M. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 2010 10:3 (238-246)
  5. ^ Shoeb Ahmad, Abdul Hannan, S Z Rahman, Shema Wasi, Role of Withania somnifera in the management of abnormal nocturnal emission. UniMed Kulliyat Vol 2 (1) 2006: 45-4
  6. ^
  7. ^ L. D. Kapoor (2001). Handbook of Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-2929-9.
  8. ^ Lu L, Liu Y, Zhu W, et al. (2009). "Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 35 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1080/00952990802455469. PMID 19152199.
  9. ^ a b Cooley K, Szczurko O, Perri D, et al. (2009). "Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974". PLoS ONE 4 (8): e6628. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006628.PMC 2729375. PMID 19718255.
  10. ^ a b Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D (October 2004). "A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees". J Clin Rheumatol 10 (5): 236–45. doi:10.1097/01.rhu.0000138087.47382.6d. PMID 17043520.
  11. ^ Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B (1991). "Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study". J Ethnopharmacol 33 (1-2): 91–5. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90167-C. PMID 1943180.
  12. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, CTRI/2008/091/000089, http://www.ctri.in/Clinicaltrials/ViewTrial.jsp?trialno=175
  13. ^ Pakistan, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, ISRCTN31871098,http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ISRCTN31871098
  14. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, NCT00689195,http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=NCT00689195
  15. ^ USA, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, NCT00761761,http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=NCT00761761
  16. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, CTRI/2008/091/000053, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=CTRI/2008/091/000053
  17. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, CTRI/2008/091/000054, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=CTRI/2008/091/000053
  18. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, CTRI/2008/091/000052, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=CTRI/2008/091/000052
  19. ^ India, World Health Organization International Clinical Registry Program, CTRI/2008/091/000047, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=CTRI/2008/091/000047
  20. ^ Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974.Cooley K., Szczurko O., Perri D., Mills E.J., Bernhardt B., Zhou Q., Seely D. PloS one 2009 4:8 (e6628)
  21. ^ van der Hooft CS, Hoekstra A, Winter A, de Smet PA, Stricker BH (November 2005). "[Thyrotoxicosis following the use of ashwagandha]" (in Dutch). Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde 149 (47): 2637–8. PMID 16355578.
  22. ^ Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress in seminal plasma of infertile malesAhmad M.K., Mahdi A.A., Shukla K.K., Islam N., Rajender S., Madhukar D., Shankhwar S.N., Ahmad S.
  23. ^ Neuroprotective effects of withania somnifera dunal.: A possible mechanism Bhatnagar M., Sharma D., Salvi M. Neurochemical Research 2009 34:11 (1975-1983)
  24. ^ Withania somnifera prevents morphine withdrawal-induced decrease in spine density in nucleus accumbens shell of rats: A confocal laser scanning microscopy studyKasture S., Vinci S., Ibba F., Puddu A., Marongiu M., Murali B., Pisanu A., Lecca D., Zernig G., Acquas E. Neurotoxicity Research 2009 16:4 (343-355)
  25. ^ Glycowithanolides accumulation in in vitro shoot cultures of Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera dunal)Ahuja A., Kaur D., Sharada M., Kumar A., Suri K.A., Dutt P. Natural Product Communications 2009 4:4 (479-482)
  26. ^ Koduru S., Kumar R., Srinivasan S., Evers M.B., Damodaran C. (2010). 9. pp. 202–210. Notch-1 inhibition by withaferin-A: A therapeutic target against colon carcinogenesis.
  27. ^ Thaiparambil, JT.; Bender, L.; Ganesh, T.; Kline, E.; Patel, P.; Liu, Y.; Tighiouart, M.; Vertino, PM. et al. (Jan 2011). "Withaferin A inhibits breast cancer invasion and metastasis at sub-cytotoxic doses by inducing vimentin disassembly and serine 56 phosphorylation.". Int J Cancer.doi:10.1002/ijc.25938. PMID 21538350.
  28. ^ Ichikawa H, Takada Y, Shishodia S, Jayaprakasam B, Nair MG, Aggarwal BB (June 2006). "Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression". Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 5 (6): 1434–45. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0096. PMID 16818501.
  29. ^ Pati, Pratap Kumar; Pati, P.K., Sharma, M., Salar, R.K., Sharma, A., Gupta, A.P., and Singh, B. (2009). "Studies on leaf spot disease of Withania somnifera and its impact on secondary metabolites. Indian Journal of Microbiology. 48:". Indian Journal of Microbiology (Springer India)48: 432–437. doi:10.1007/s12088-008-0053-y. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
  30. ^ Kaul K. N. 1956. The origin, distribution and cultivation of Ashwangandha, the so called Withania somnifera of Indian literature. Symposium on the utilisation of Indian Medicinal Plants; Lucknow CSIR.pp.07-08

[edit]External links

Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, Winter cherry, Ajagandha, Kanaje Hindi, Amukkara in Tamil and Samm Al Ferakh, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family.

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